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The free trade agreement was concluded in 1988 and NAFTA extended most of the provisions of the free trade agreement to Mexico. NAFTA was negotiated by the governments of U.S. President George H.W. Bush, Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and Mexican Prime Minister Carlos Salinas de Gortari. An interim agreement on the pact was reached in August 1992 and signed by the three heads of state and government on 17 December. NAFTA was ratified by the national parliaments of the three countries in 1993 and came into force on January 1, 1994. Clinton signed it on December 8, 1993. The agreement came into force on 1 January 1994. [24] [25] At the signing ceremony, Clinton paid tribute to four people for their efforts to reach the historic trade agreement: Vice President Al Gore, Council of Economic Advisers Chair Laura Tyson, National Economic Council Director Robert Rubin and Republican Congressman David Dreier. [26] Clinton also said, “NAFTA means jobs. U.S. jobs and well-paying American jobs.

If I didn`t believe it, I wouldn`t support this agreement. [27] NAFTA replaced the old Canada-U.S. free trade agreement. A “secondary agreement” reached in August 1993 on the application of existing domestic labour law, the North American Convention on Labour Cooperation (NAALC) [39], was severely restricted. With regard to health and safety standards and child labour law, it excluded collective bargaining issues, and its “control teeth” were only accessible at the end of a “long and painful” dispute. [40] The obligations to enforce existing labour law have also raised questions of democratic practice. [37] The Canadian anti-NAFTA coalition Pro-Canada Network suggested that guarantees of minimum standards in the absence of “extensive democratic reforms in the [Mexican] courts, unions and government” would be of no use. [41] However, subsequent evaluations indicated that NAALC`s principles and complaint mechanisms “created a new space for princes to form coalitions and take concrete steps to articulate the challenges of the status quo and promote the interests of workers.” [42] In July 2017, the Trump administration presented a detailed list of changes it wanted to make to NAFTA. [131] The top priority was to reduce the U.S. trade deficit.

[131] [132] The government has also called for the abolition of provisions allowing Canada and Mexico to challenge U.S. tariffs and impose import restrictions on the United States, Canada and Mexico. [131] The list also highlighted subsidized state-owned enterprises and monetary manipulation. [131] [133] Mexican politicians saw nafta as a chance to accelerate and block these hard-pressed reforms in the Mexican economy. In addition to trade liberalization, Mexican leaders have reduced public debt, introduced a balanced budget rule, stabilized inflation and built up the country`s foreign exchange reserves.